International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2016, Pages: 9-15

Widely Wavelength-Tunable Solitonic Pulse Generation Using InGaAsP/InP Microring Resonators

I. S. Amiri1, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji2

1Photonics Research Centre, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Computer Techniques Engineering Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq

Email address:

(I. S. Amiri)
(H. M. R. Al-Khafaji)

To cite this article:

I. S. Amiri, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji. Widely Wavelength-Tunable Solitonic Pulse Generation Using InGaAsP/InP Microring Resonators. International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 9-15. doi: 10.11648/j.ijics.20160101.12

Received: June 15, 2016; Accepted: June 18, 2016; Published: July 5, 2016


Abstract: Multi-optical solitonic carriers suitable for use in optical communication systems and telecommunications have been generated via microring resonators (MRRs) incorporating an add/drop filter system. The generated multi solitonic carriers utilizing the MRRs were sufficiently stable for transmitting in a free space channel while experiencing very low dispersion during propagation. Moreover, the technique used which is iterative method using MRRs allowed for greater number of channels as multi-channel generation that could be utilized in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) system. Solitonic carriers were created, with each carrier possessing a free spectral range (FSR) of 12.45 GHz and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 250 MHz.

Keywords: Microring Resonator, Soliton, Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM)


1. Optical Multicarrier Generation Principals

The system of THz frequency band generation is shown in Figure 1. Here, a series of MRRs are incorporated with an add/drop filter system. In this study the MRRs are simulated using waveguides, where experimentally they can be produced via fabrication technology. The III/V semiconductors (InGaAsP/InP) on the basis of InP with a direct bandgap are used to simulate these ring resonators [1-4]. The input pulse of the Gaussian goes through the filtering process within the MRRs, therefore THz frequency band can be generated and used in many applications in optical communications [5-8]. The function of the MRRs is to filter out the resonance modes when the input pulse of Gaussian or any other types of lasers round trip the MRR’s circumference, therefore the intensity within the MRRs can be built up in which the MRRs having bigger radius or cross section are connected to the next MRRs with smaller radius [9,10]. The self-phase modulation behavior caused by the nonlinear effect is responsible to obtain a large output gain within the MRRs, where solitons can be formed by balancing the linear effect as dispersion and the nonlinear effect as self-phase modulation [11-14]. Figure 1 shown the system consisting of series of MRRs integrated with an add/drop filter system. The directional couplers are used to couple the waveguide to the MRRs.

Fig. 1. MRR system with R: ring radii, : coupling coefficients, : add/drop ring radius, Ein: input powers, Eout: Ring resonator output, Et: throughput output, and Ed: drop port output.

The medium of the ring resonator has Kerr effect-type nonlinearity [15-18]. The Kerr effect causes the refractive index (n) of the medium to vary, and is given by [19-22]

(1)

where  and  are the linear and nonlinear refractive indices respectively [23, 24], and I and P are the optical intensity and the power respectively [25-27]. The effective mode core area is given by  and ranges from 0.10 µm2 to 0.50 µm2 in terms of material parameters (InGaAsP/InP) [28-31]. A Gaussian pulse having a central wavelength of 1.55 μm and power of 1 W is introduced into the input port, , of the system [32]. The input optical field of the Gaussian pulse is given by [33, 34]

(2)

where and z are the amplitude of the optical fields and propagation distance respectively [35-37], is the dispersion length of the soliton pulse [38-40], and the carrier frequency of the signal is  [41, 42]. The soliton pulse keeps its temporal width invariance while it propagates, and is therefore it referred to as a temporal soliton [43-46]. A balance should be achieved between the dispersion length () and the nonlinear length () [47-49], so that the condition  is achieved [50]. Here,  is the length scale over which dispersive or nonlinear effects cause the beam to become wider or narrower [51, 52]. In the case of the add/drop system, the nonlinear refractive index is neglected [53]. The normalized output intensity of the light field, which is the ratio between the output and the input fields for each round trip, can be expressed by [54, 55].

(3)

is the coupling coefficient, and   represents the round trip loss coefficient, where the ring resonator length and linear absorption coefficient are given by  and respectively [56-58].  where  is the linear phase shift. The nonlinear phase shift for the first MRR is [59-61],

(4)

Due to the optical intensity enhancement experienced in each MRR, the nonlinear phase shift for the second and third MRRs can be expressed by [62-64],

(5)

(6)

The wave propagation number in a vacuum and the fractional coupler intensity loss are given by  and respectively [65-67]. The Gaussian pulse is input into the MRRs, and a chaotic signal can be formed via applying appropriate parameters [68, 69]. The throughput and drop port electrical fields of the add/drop system can be expressed by [70-72].

(7)

(8)

where  and are the coupling coefficients, , and  is the radius of the add/drop system. The normalized optical outputs of the add/drop system can be expressed by [73, 74]

(9)

(10)

where and are the output intensities of the through and drop ports, respectively [75-77], whereas the output electric field from the third ring is given by . In this work, the iterative method is introduced to obtain the resonant results and similarly, when the output field is connected and input into the other MRRs [78, 79].

2. Results of Soliton Generation

Simulated MRRs have the specific parameters as shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Specific parameters of the MRRs.

The chaotic signal can be generation by round tripping the input within the MRRs shown in Figure 2. The Gaussian pulse used as input pulse has power of 1 W and it is inserted into the system. By using the nonlinear conditions within the MRRs, we could generate large bandwidth frequencies. The input pulse was filtered to many smaller and narrow bandwidth pulses spreading out throughout the spectrum, therefore a large bandwidth could be obtained utilizing the nonlinear conditions. As conclusion, the frequencies of soliton pulses could be formed and performed within the system, while suitable MRR parameters have been selected in order to optimize the functionality of the resonator system. Figure 2(a) shows the input Gaussian pulse, Figure 2(b) shows generation of chaotic signals as output results for the firat MRR due to existing of nonlinear condition, Figure 2(c) shows the outputs from the second MRR presenting less chaotic signals due to the filtering process. Soliton pulses ranged from 190 to 196 THz could be generated successfully.

Fig. 2. Chaotic signals generation, (a) input Gaussian pulse, (b) output from the first MRR, (c) output from the second MRR.

Fig. 3. Multi-solitons output from the drop port, with FSR as 12.45 GHz and FWHM as 250 MHz.

Generated multi-soliton pulses ranging from 192.95 to 193.3 THz, are performed and shown in Figure 3(b), were they are as consequence of the short bandwidth Gaussian pulse inserted into the third MRR. The drop port of the add/drop filter system show generation of solitonic pulses in the range of 192.75 to 193.25 THz (Figure 3(c)). Since the input signal to the add/drop filter system did not roundtrip in the system, the dispersion effect is negligible. The free spectral range (FSR) of the pulses is 12.45 GHz, where the full width at half maximum is 250 MHz as shown in Figure 3(d). The advantage of using the add/drop system lay in generating spatially uniform multi-solitons.

We have calculated the finesse (F), given by the ratio FSR/FWHM, approximately 49.8, and the Q-factor, defined as the ratio of the resonant wavelength to the 3-dB bandwidth (FWHM), as ~7.7×105. The presented finesse and Q-factor are ideal impacts in order to design and fabricate an optical transmitter system based on MRRs, applicable in optical communication systems. Therefore, such results established manifest of this newly suggested and presented system having high performance and efficiency. When the input pulse with specific wavelength and power intensity propagates within the simulated MRRs waveguide, the resonance condition occurs and the resonating optical modes will pass through the MRRs and they could be detected in the drop port of the system due to the successful constructive interferences between the signals in the system. The modes result from destructive interferences will be removed from the resonance system and will not be detected due to high loss. Such functionality of the MRRs is in particular well suited for filtering and shifting both wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical signals and multiple-wavelength optical packets.

3. Conclusion

A series of microring resonators with an incorporated add/drop filter was utilized to generate stable optical solitonic carriers to be used in a communication system. The generated solitonic carriers had great stability and low dispersion, and thus were highly suitable for transmission across a free space channel. The method of generation furthermore increased the number of channels applicable for servicing within an optical communication system. Multi carriers, each with FSR and FWHM of 12.45 GHz and 250 MHz respectively, were generated. The proposed method, which was successfully demonstration as described in this paper, therefore can be used to service more channels in telecommunication systems and so enhance broadband capacity.

Acknowledgements

IS Amiri would like to acknowledge the grant number LRGS(2015) NGOD/UM/KPT, UMRG(RP029B-15AFR), GA010-2014 (ulung) and RU007/2015 from the university of Malaya (UM).


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