International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences
Volume 1, Issue 1, August 2016, Pages: 1-8

Panda Microring Resonator (PMRR) to Generate 90 GHz Free Spectral Range (FSR) Solitonic Signals Used for Telecommunication Applications

IS Amiri1, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji2

1Photonics Research Centre, University of Malaya (UM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

2Computer Techniques Engineering Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq

Email address:

(IS Amiri)
(H. M. R. Al-Khafaji)

*Corresponding author

To cite this article:

IS Amiri, Hamza M. R. Al-Khafaji. Panda Microring Resonator (PMRR) to Generate 90 GHz Free Spectral Range (FSR) Solitonic Signals Used for Telecommunication Applications. International Journal of Information and Communication Sciences. Vol. 1, No. 1, 2016, pp. 1-8. doi: 10.11648/j.ijics.20160101.11

Received: April 15, 2016; Accepted: May 10, 2016; Published: June 20, 2016


Abstract: In this work optical solitons carrier generation in a nonlinear waveguide microring resonator (MRR) is simulated and presented. Therefore, a system comprises of a W-band (75 to 110 GHz) optical millimeter wave generation using a Panda microring resonator (PMRR) is presented. A bright soliton with a central frequency of 50 GHz and power of 1 W is introduced into the PMRR. The optical Kerr effect manifests itself temporally as self-phase modulation, a self-induced phase- and frequency-shift of a pulse of light as it travels through a medium. Large bandwidth within the microring device can be generated by using a soliton spectrum input into the nonlinear PMRR. The 90 GHz free spectral range (FSR) solitonic signals were simply generated by adjusting the system parameters. By beating the closely center frequencies of the solitonic signals, we can obtain a center frequency which corresponds to that spacing as millimeter wave used for many applications in signal processing and communications such as wireless cable systems and indoor–outdoor communication.

Keywords: PMRR, Free Spectral Range (FSR), Waveguide Microring Resonator (MRR)


1. Introduction

Nowadays in order to satisfy the increased desire of high-speed data communication, wireless links which can provide multi gigabit-per-second capacities into the core network are getting more attention [1-4]. Optics has become the way by which most information is sent over nearly all the distance that it travels.

The remarkable growth of networks and the Internet over the past decade has been enabled by previous generations of optical technology. Optics is, furthermore, the only technology with the physical headroom to keep up with this exponentially growing demand for communicating information.

Carrier frequency translation can be done whether in electrical or optical domain [5-8]. Passive optical networks (PONs) are the primary broadband optical delivery architecture, providing the shared bandwidth of a fiber to multiple users (16 to 64 users). Generation of mm-wave signal in electrical domain is a challenging issue due to large loss and high cost [9-12].

Propagation attenuation is not purely problematic, however. The added loss at frequencies such as 24GHz and 60GHz can result in a faster drop in the signal power resulting in potentially higher frequency reuse ratio for a cellular implementation, where the same frequency can be used nearby by a different base station. The propagation properties of mm-waves are closer to their yet higher frequency electromagnetic siblings, namely, visible light.

The optically distribution and processing of signals in the mm-wave range is much preferred [13-17]. These schemes of optical millimetre-wave signal generation and up-conversion pave the way for future-proof access networks using all-optical technologies. Recently, several studies are conducted to generate mm-wave signals whether in V-band (57~64 GHz) or for higher data rates, W-band (75~110 GHz) [18-23].

Even some efforts have been done to improve the W-band RoF systems but still practical generation of high data rate W-band signal is challenging issue and requires more research to improve the system both technically and economically. Table 1 compares some recent works and their methods to generate W-band signal and highlights the drawbacks of each method separately.

As can be concluded from Table I these methods are suffered from spectral efficient modulation or narrow-linewidth laser, which increase the cost, complexity and efficiency of the overall system. Higher spectral efficiency (SE) and better transmission performance can be achieved using systems of microring resonators (MRRs) [31-34]

Table 1. Comparison of recent techniques on W-band signal generation.

Method BW (GHz) Data Rate (Gb/s) and Drawback
1) Remote Up-conversion with photonic transmitter-mixer [24] 20, 83~103 No spectral efficient Mod
2) Self-coherent heterodyne [25] 40, 87.5~97.5 Laser costly
3) Coherent heterodyne [26-28] 108, 57 Laser costly
4) Multi-input multi-output technology with coherent heterodyne [26, 29] 120, 108, 86.5~113.5 Laser costly
5) Direct-Detection (DD) technology based on optical carrier suppression scheme [30] 40, 98~108 High Frequency LOs

Optical MRRs recently are interesting subject in the area of integrated optics because of their unique aspects such as compactness, low cost, tunability and easy integration on a chip with other photonic devices, having a variety of applications such as optical filter, optical switch, optical modulator, optical delay line, dispersion compensator and optical sensor.

Add/drop filter system which create or filter narrowband wavelength signals from wider optical spectrum and connected to the bus waveguide are generally basic foundations of building blocks in addition to optical communication devices. Furthermore, MRRs have excellent wavelength selection properties and can be used to design tunable filters, modulators, wavelength converters, and switches that are critical components for optical interconnects.

Based on the formulated problems concerned by previous studies, in this work optical solitons carrier generation in a nonlinear waveguide MRR is presented [35, 36]. A Panda Microring Resonator (PMRR) is used to generate W-Band soliton signals with upper and lower optical carriers to be applied for telecommunication systems.

Nonlinear light behaviour inside a PMRR occurs when a strong signal of light is inputted into the ring system; this is used for many applications in signal processing and communication such as wireless cable systems and indoor–outdoor communication [37-39]. The PMRR consists of a centred ring resonator connected to two smaller ring resonators on the right and left sides. The properties of a MRR can be modified via various control methods [40-42].

MRRs can be used as filter devices where trapping of optical frequency or wavelength can be obtained using suitable system parameters [43-45]. Results in this paper show that the system support both single-carrier and multi-carrier optical soliton signals that can be used in W-band transmission/receiver systems.

2. Theory of Soliton Generation

The system of W-Band frequency band generation is shown in Figure 1. Here, a PMRR is used. The filtering process of the input soliton spectrum is performed via the system, where the frequency band ranges of 193–194 THz can be obtained.

Fig. 1. Optical frequency band generation system using a PMRR.

MRRs are simulated using waveguide, where the medium has Kerr effect-type nonlinearity [46]. The Kerr effect, also called the quadratic electro-optic effect (QEO effect), is a change in the refractive index of a material in response to an applied electric field.

The optical Kerr effect manifests itself temporally as self-phase modulation, a self-induced phase- and frequency-shift of a pulse of light as it travels through a medium. This process, along with dispersion, can produce optical solitons. Spatially, an intense beam of light in a medium will produce a change in the medium's refractive index that mimics the transverse intensity pattern of the beam. The Kerr effect causes the refractive index (n) of the medium to vary; it is given by [47-50]

(1)

where n0 and n2 are the linear and nonlinear refractive indexes, respectively, and I and P are the optical intensity and the power, respectively [51-53]. The effective mode core area given by Aeff ranges from 0.10 to 0.25 µm2 in terms of practical material parameters (InGaAsP/InP) [54-56].

A bright soliton is characterized as a localized intensity peak above a continuous wave (CW) background while a dark soliton is featured as a localized intensity dip below a continuous wave (CW) background. It is a well-known fact that the interplay of nonlinearity and dispersion leads to the appearance of localized wave packets moving without distortion.

When the interaction between atoms is attractive, bright solitons can be generated. In this study, a bright soliton with a central frequency of 50 GHz and power of 1 W is introduced into the first ring resonator, R1, expressed by . The input optical field of the optical bright soliton is given by [57-60]

(2)

where and z are the amplitude of optical field and propagation distance, respectively, LD is the dispersion length of the soliton signal [61, 62], and the carrier frequency of the signal is ω0.

The soliton signal keeps its temporal and spatial width invariance while it propagates; therefore, it is called a temporal and spatial soliton [63-65]. A balance should be achieved between the dispersion length (LD) and the nonlinear length (LNL=1/ΓΦNL) [66-68]. Here, Γ=n2×k0 is the length scale over which disperse or nonlinear effects make the beam become wider or narrower; hence, LD=LNL. The interior signals are given as follows [69-72]:

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

where  is the intensity coupling coefficient [73, 74],  is the fractional coupler intensity loss [75, 76], a is the attenuation coefficient [77-79], , and  is the radius of the PMRR [80, 81]. The electric field of the left and right rings of the PMRR is given by [82-85]

(7)

(8)

Where , , , . Therefore, the output signals from the through and drop ports of the PMRR can be expressed as [86-89]

(9)

(10)

Here the Et1 include two frequency components which are allocated as upper and lower optical solitonic carriers called UOC and LOC respectively shown in Figure 2 [90-92]. The fixed and variable parameters of the PMRR are listed in Table 2.

Table 2. Fixed and variable parameters of the PMRR.

3. Results and Discussions

The results of the chaotic signal generation are shown in Figure 2. The input soliton spectrum with a power of 1 W is inserted into the system. Large bandwidth within the microring device can be generated by using a soliton spectrum input into the nonlinear PMRR.

This means that the broad spectrum of light can be generated after the soliton pulse is input into the ring resonator system. The signal is chopped (sliced) into smaller signals spreading over the spectrum; thus, a large bandwidth is formed by the nonlinear effects of the medium. A frequency soliton signals can be formed and trapped within the PMRR with suitable MRR parameters.

Interior soliton signals inside the PMRR can be seen in Figure 2, where the filtering and trapping processes occur during propagation of the input soliton spectrum inside the system. Figure 2(a-d) shows the interior generated signals of the PMRR.

Filtering of the interior soliton signals can be performed when the signals pass through the couplers, κ1, κ2, κ3, and κ4. The output signals from the throughput and drop ports of the system can be seen in Figure 3, where solitonic optical carriers ranges of 193–194 THz are generated and used in many communication applications, such as wireless personal area networks (WPANs), wireless local area networks (WLANs) and Radio over Fiver (RoF) [93-97].

The throughput output (Et1) shows localized ultra-short soliton signals (LOC and UOC) with an FSR of 90 GHz. The drop port output expressed by Et2 is shown in Figure 3(b), where multi-soliton signals could be generated [98-101]. Here, a high capacity of signals can be obtained by generating multi-soliton signals [102-104].

Fig. 2. Interior soliton power: (a) E12(W), (b) E22(W), (c) E32(W), (d) E42(W).

Fig. 3. Results of upper and lower solitonic optical carriers and multi-solitons: (a) throughput output signal with FSR=90 GHz, (b) multi-soliton signals.

Based on Figure 1 and presented parameters in Tables 2, the PMRR generates frequencies of 193.3 and 193.39 THz respectively which are 90 GHz apart. By beating the closely center frequencies of the throughput output signals, we can obtain a center frequency which corresponds to that spacing as millimeter wave [105].

4. Conclusions

A Panda Microring Resonator (PMRR) for generating W-band solitonic optical carriers is demonstrated to be used in telecommunication applications. The high-capacity transmission can be obtained using soliton signals with high GHz frequency band carrier. Here the 90 GHz apart soliton signals are generated. Thus, high bitrate data transmissions can be provided, using a broad frequency band of 75 to 110 GHz.


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  73. I. S. Amiri, P. Naraei, and J. Ali, "Review and Theory of Optical Soliton Generation Used to Improve the Security and High Capacity of MRR and NRR Passive Systems," Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience (JCTN) 11, 1875-1886 (2014).
  74. I. Amiri and H. Ahmad, "Solitonic Signals Generation and Transmission Using MRR," in Optical Soliton Communication Using Ultra-Short Pulses (Springer, USA, 2015), pp. 31-46.
  75. MRK Soltanian, IS Amiri, SD Emami, and H Ahmad, "Yagi-Uda nanoantenna in the near-field optical domain," in Optical Communication Systems: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Novascience Publisher, New York, 2015), pp. 91 - 96.
  76. A. Shahidinejad, S. Soltanmohammadi, I. S. Amiri, and T. Anwar, "Solitonic Pulse Generation for Inter-Satellite Optical Wireless Communication," Quantum Matter 3, 150-154 (2014).
  77. I. Amiri, M. Soltanian, and H. Ahmad, "Application of Microring Resonators (MRRs) in Optical Soliton Communications," in Optical Communication Systems: Fundamentals, Techniques and Applications (Novascience Publisher, 2015), pp. 25 - 44.
  78. I. S. Amiri and J. Ali, "Nano Optical Tweezers Generation Used for Heat Surgery of a Human Tissue Cancer Cells Using Add/Drop Interferometer System," Quantum Matter 2, 489-493 (2013).
  79. I. S. Amiri and H. Ahmad, "Multiplex and De-multiplex of Generated Multi Optical Soliton By MRRs Using Fiber Optics Transmission Link," Quantum Matter 4, 463-468 (2015).
  80. I. S. Amiri and J. Ali, "Simulation of the Single Ring Resonator Based on the Z-transform Method Theory," Quantum Matter 3, 519-522 (2014).
  81. IS Amiri and A Afroozeh, "Introduction of Soliton Generation," in Ring Resonator Systems to Perform Optical Communication Enhancement Using Soliton (Springer, USA, 2014).
  82. I. S. Amiri, S. E. Alavi, and H. Ahmad, "Radio Frequency signal generation and wireless transmission using PANDA and Add/drop systems," Journal of Computational and Theoretical Nanoscience (JCTN) 12, 1770-1774(1775) (2015).
  83. M Soltanian, IS Amiri, SE Alavi, and H Ahmad, "All Optical Ultra-Wideband Signal Generation and Transmission Using Mode-locked laser Incorporated With Add-drop Microring Resonator (MRR)," Laser Physics Letters 12(2015).
  84. I. S. Amiri and J. Ali, "Deform of Biological Human Tissue Using Inserted Force Applied by Optical Tweezers Generated By PANDA Ring Resonator," Quantum Matter 3, 24-28 (2014).
  85. I. S. Amiri, H. Ahmad, and P. Naraei, "Optical Transmission Characteristics of an Optical Add-Drop Interferometer System," Quantum Matter 4, 644-647 (2015).
  86. IS Amiri, MRK Soltanian, SE Alavi, and H. Ahmad, "Multi Wavelength Mode-lock Soliton Generation Using Fiber Laser Loop Coupled to an Add-drop Ring Resonator," Optical and Quantum Electronics 47, 2455 - 2464 (2015).
  87. I. S. Amiri, A. Nikoukar, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, "Ultra-Short of Pico and Femtosecond Soliton Laser Pulse Using Microring Resonator for Cancer Cells Treatment," Quantum Matter 1, 159-165 (2012).
  88. Ali Shahidinejad, Iraj Sadegh Amiri, and Toni Anwar, "Enhancement of Indoor Wavelength Division Multiplexing-Based Optical Wireless Communication Using Microring Resonator," Reviews in Theoretical Science 2, 201-210 (2014).
  89. I. Sadegh Amiri, M. Nikmaram, A. Shahidinejad, and J. Ali, "Generation of potential wells used for quantum codes transmission via a TDMA network communication system," Security and Communication Networks 6, 1301-1309 (2013).
  90. I. S. Amiri and A. Afroozeh, "Spatial and Temporal Soliton Pulse Generation By Transmission of Chaotic Signals Using Fiber Optic Link" in Advances in Laser and Optics Research (Nova Science Publisher, New York, 2015), pp. 119-131.
  91. P. P. Yupapin, M. A. Jalil, I. S. Amiri, I. Naim, and J. Ali, "New Communication Bands Generated by Using a Soliton Pulse within a Resonator System," Circuits and Systems 1, 71-75 (2010).
  92. I. Amiri and H. Ahmad, "Ultra-Short Solitonic Pulses Used in Optical communication," in Optical Soliton Communication Using Ultra-Short Pulses (Springer, USA, 2015), pp. 47-51.
  93. H Ahmad, MRK Soltanian, Leila Narimani, IS Amiri, A Khodaei, and SW Harun, "Tunable S-Band Q-Switched Fiber Laser using Bi2Se3 as the saturable absorber," IEEE Photonics Journal 7(2015).
  94. I. S. Amiri and J. Ali, "Nano Particle Trapping By Ultra-short tweezer and wells Using MRR Interferometer System for Spectroscopy Application," Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Letters 5, 850-856 (2013).
  95. S. E. Alavi, I. S. Amiri, S. M. Idrus, and A. S. M. Supa'at, "Generation and Wired/Wireless Transmission of IEEE802.16m Signal Using Solitons Generated By Microring Resonator," Optical and Quantum Electronics 47, 975-984 (2014).
  96. IS Amiri, SE Alavi, and H Ahmad, "Increasing Access Points in a Passive Optical Network," Optics and Photonics News (2015).
  97. Iraj Sadegh Amiri and Harith Ahmad, Optical Soliton Communication Using Ultra-Short Pulses, SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology (Springer, USA, 2014).
  98. SE Alavi, IS Amiri, MRK Soltanian, R Penny, ASM Supa'at, and H Ahmad, "Multiwavelength generation using an add-drop microring resonator integrated with InGaAsP/InP sampled grating distributed feedback (SG-DFB)," Chinese Optics Letters 14, 021301 (2016).
  99. I. S. Amiri, S. E. Alavi, S. M. Idrus, A. S. M. Supa'at, J. Ali, and P. P. Yupapin, "W-Band OFDM transmission for radio-over-fiber link using solitonic millimeter wave generated by MRR," Quantum Electronics, IEEE Journal of 50, 622-628 (2014).
  100. I. S. Amiri, S. E. Alavi, and S. M. Idrus, "Results of Digital Soliton Pulse Generation and Transmission Using Microring Resonators," in Soliton Coding for Secured Optical Communication Link (Springer, USA, 2015), pp. 41-56.
  101. I. S. Amiri, S. E. Alavi, and S. M. Idrus, "Introduction of Fiber Waveguide and Soliton Signals Used to Enhance the Communication Security," in Soliton Coding for Secured Optical Communication Link (Springer, USA, 2015), pp. 1-16.
  102. I. S. Amiri and J. Ali, "Characterization of Optical Bistability In a Fiber Optic Ring Resonator," Quantum Matter 3, 47-51 (2014).
  103. IS Amiri and A Afroozeh, "Soliton Generation Based Optical Communication," in Ring Resonator Systems to Perform Optical Communication Enhancement Using Soliton (Springer, USA, 2014).
  104. I. S. Amiri, S. E. Alavi, and S. M. Idrus, "Theoretical Background of Microring Resonator Systems and Soliton Communication," in Soliton Coding for Secured Optical Communication Link (Springer, USA, 2015), pp. 17-39.
  105. H. Ahmad, I. S. Amiri, M. R. K. Soltanian, A. A. Latif, S. F. Norizan, and S. E. Alavi, "Multi dual-wavelength generation using InGaAsP/InP passive microring resonator with two sides Apodized gratings," Materials Express (2016).

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